This is book number 1 in the Lady Astronaut series.
In Mary Robinette Kowal's Hugo Award-winning alternate history novel, the first in her Lady Astronaut series, we meet Elma York, a pilot-turned-NASA "computer." After a meteor strike causes worldwide climate change, efforts to colonize the moon and Mars are accelerate. Elma and other highly-qualified women, though, are all but shut out of astronaut training until they make change happen.
Most Highly Recommended— Billie